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Proper Formatting of Footnotes in the Thesis

A thesis is a study that demonstrates the level of scientific culture and literacy of a university graduate, his ability to follow the requirements. That is why the graduate must comply with a number of serious requirements. Their non-compliance is fraught with disqualification for protection.

Requirements for the design of footnotes and references

In order for the thesis to be accepted by the supervisor without any major modifications, it is necessary to correctly draw up footnotes and references in the thesis in accordance with the rules. According to this document, the graduate must:

  • accurately describe the bibliographic data;

  • competently use quotes in your scientific research;

  • correctly insert footnotes and references in the text of the graduation project;

  • correctly position and indicate the list of references, electronic and other sources used.

The difference between footnotes and links is simple. A footnote is an explanation of the information contained in the study, it can be given after any terms, phrases and other syntactic constructions. A link is an indication of a literary, documentary, scientific or any other source available to students. Depending on how the information is presented, the following types of references are distinguished in the thesis:

  • intertext (explanation in parentheses follows immediately after the term or phrase that needs the author's comments);

  • beyond the text (they are placed at the end of the work; square brackets are used).

Footnotes in the thesis are only footnotes. They are separated from the main text on the page by a horizontal line drawn from the bottom.

Rules for the design of footnotes in the thesis

Footnotes are the subscript type of notes. They are marked either with Arabic numerals in the order of mention, or with an asterisk immediately after the word, quote, sentence or piece of text that the needs to clarify. The last designation is relevant if there are no other footnotes on the page. In other cases, numbers are recommended. However, 2-3 footnotes in some cases are also often indicated by "asterisks": *, **, ***.

At the bottom, under the main text, a line is drawn, and under it the author's note is indicated. It should be concise, without piling up facts. A dot is placed at the end of the explanation. To highlight this information in the general flow, many use smaller fonts. If there are several footnotes, then each new note should be written on a new line. General rules for registration:

  1. Footnotes should use the same font as all text. To visually highlight the information, draw attention to it, you can reduce the font size. Notes do not need to be italicized or bold.

  2. When designing footnotes in the thesis, it is necessary to indent from the main text by 1.5-2 intervals.

  3. Do you need to make footnotes in your dissertation? Use the Word editor. To create them, the author of a scientific work must find the "Links" button on the main toolbar and click on it. Then specify the appropriate parameters.

  4. You can number footnotes page by page or within the entire text of the thesis.

  5. To avoid piling up facts, it is recommended to use no more than 3 subscript links on 1 page.

Properly designed work is an indicator of the scientific literacy of a graduate. This is a “pass” for student work to be defended before the members of the SAC. That is why it is so important that all references and footnotes in the thesis are properly formatted. However, this simple, at first glance, task is not always possible to cope with the first time.

To prevent this from happening with your work, you need to either take this criterion responsibly, or order a thesis work from specialists from the educational center. Our help is your confidence in successful protection. The vast majority of scientific research is sent for revision precisely because of the incorrect design of footnotes and references.

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